what are the core principles of programming

The core principles of programming can be summarized as follows:

  • Abstraction: Abstraction is the process of focusing on the essential features of an object or concept while ignoring its irrelevant details. In programming, abstraction helps to manage complexity by hiding implementation details and presenting only the essential features to the user.
  • Decomposition: Decomposition is the process of breaking down a complex problem into smaller, more manageable subproblems. In programming, decomposition involves breaking down a large problem into smaller modules, functions or procedures that can be solved independently and then combined to solve the larger problem.
  • Modularity: Modularity is the design technique that separates the functionality of a program into independent, interchangeable components called modules. Modularity improves the maintainability, reusability, and scalability of code by allowing developers to modify or replace individual components without affecting the entire system.
  • Encapsulation: Encapsulation is the technique of hiding the implementation details of a module or object from other modules or objects. Encapsulation prevents external modules from accessing or modifying the internal state of an object directly and provides a clean and well-defined interface for interacting with the object.
  • Maintainability: Maintainability refers to the ease with which a program can be modified or extended without introducing errors. Well-designed programs are easy to maintain because they are modular, encapsulated, and follow established coding conventions.
  • Efficiency: Efficiency refers to the ability of a program to perform its intended function quickly and with minimal resource consumption. Efficient programs are optimized for speed and use the minimum amount of memory, processing power, and other system resources.
  • Correctness: Correctness refers to the ability of a program to produce the expected output for all valid input. Correct programs are thoroughly tested and verified to ensure that they behave correctly under all possible conditions.


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