When you are deciding what factors and interactions you want to get information about, you also need to determine the smallest effect you will consider significant enough to improve your process. This minimum size is known as the detectable effect size, or DES. Large effects are easier to detect than small effects. A design of experiment compares the total variability in the experiment to the variation caused by a factor. The smaller the effect you are interested in, the more runs you will need to overcome the variability in your experimentation.