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Criteria for Successful Lean Six Sigma Project

In a recent Lean Six Sigma Project kick-off meeting of one of my clients, after the teams presented their project charters, the business leader made an extempore announcement that the best and most successful Lean Six Sigma project will receive a special recognition and the team members will be lucratively rewarded.

Immediately few of them wanted to know what criteria will be used for selection. The business leader indicated that I will be the one who will define the criteria for successful Lean Six Sigma Project.

Factors that I consider among the criteria for success of Lean Six Sigma Projects are arranged in the descending order of their importance in the below list:

  • Project Scope – Lean Six Sigma projects without well defined scope are bound to fail, but they end up creating a lot of mess around.  Scope usually refers to the boundaries of any project. A poorly defined project is one which hasn’t balanced the Project Goal, Scope and Timelines. Also, poorly communicated scope and not defining what is out of scope are equally important and to be addressed.
  • Retains interest and commitment of the resources – Improvement projects are successful when its team members contribute their best. Lean Six Sigma projects usually challenge the existing paradigm. Hence without whole hearted and continued participation of the team members, no project will be successful. The sponsor/champion and the Green Belt/Black Belt are entrusted to retain the interest and commitment of the resources.
  • Attracts adequate buy-in from key stakeholders – Stakeholders of any project could either be the decision makers, important players who influence the decisions or even impacted parties. Successful Lean Six Sigma projects will have to manage the expectations of all the above stakeholders from time to time and create adequate buy-in. Rather than focusing too much on technical root cause analysis, the emphasis should be on how Lean Six Sigma project can bring about mid-to-large scale change in the organization.
  • Flawless execution– Immaterial of the breadth and depth of the analysis done in any Lean Six Sigma project, what sticks out is execution. Well led and implemented project is bound to be successful, as even the quality of data collected and analysis is a function of the flawless execution. Adherence to weekly team meetings, project milestones and tollgates reviews are some simple and easy signs to evaluate execution. Further unbiased data collection and analysis, open minded assessment of solutions, in depth piloting and sustained monitoring are additional measures of flawless execution.
  • Identifiable impact on customers – As the proof of the pudding is in the eating, so is the success of any Lean Six Sigma in positive impact it creates on customers. Usually organizations evaluate the success of projects based on the performance of the CTQ (before-after studies). While this is definitely a good way to assess the impact, more often than not, such movements in CTQs aren’t felt by the customers. Considering several other business parameters to validate the impact of the CTQ, including post improvement Voice of Customer may be a very good method. For example, a reduction in defects certainly will reduce the rework effort, increase productivity, reduce complaints, apart from increasing customer satisfaction.
  • Making a discovery – Any successful Lean Six Sigma project should un-earth something new, make a discovery about the problem. A project without a discovery could mean we are fixing obvious things. In order to ensure the project team makes a discovery, the quality of work done in the Measure and Analyze phase have to be evaluated. Have the teams identified all possible causes to the problem? Have they collected data of good quality and quantity? Have they holistically analyzed the data to make the discovery? And finally what is the discovery?

Based on my experience with Lean Six Sigma in the last 2 decades, I would consider these 6 factors as significant elements of successful project.

Mustafa Hashmi, Mak group of Companies and Seas Investment group

Canopus Business Management Group is providing qualitative knowledge collection in a very attractive manner. All modules are very easy to learn and focuses on prime areas.

Canopus is also providing scholarships to deserving students which is really commendable, And makes it stand out!

Control Phase of Lean Six Sigma Project – A Beginner’s Guide

Control phase is the fifth and final phase of Lean Six Sigma projects. Following are the deliverable of this phase:

  • Prepare Control Plan
  • Final Implementation
  • Establish Statistical Process Control (SPC)
  • Benefits Computation & Closure

Prepare Control Plan

Control Plan or Process Management Plan is a document ensuring that a robust mechanism to monitor and follow-up is established before the solution is implemented. Most Lean Six Sigma projects don’t exist after a few years of implementation. Usually, it is because of a poor control plan. A control plan covers: which metrics will be monitored, method of monitoring, how often, by whom and what has to be done when they go out of control (aka Reaction Plan).

It is recommended to have a control plan that is easy to implement and sustain.

Final Implementation

Real implementation of a solution is part of the Control phase. Change management skills of the green belt is tested during this stage.

Establish Statistical Process Control

As a part of the control plan, the method of monitoring has to be specific. Statistical Process Control uses well known Control Charts or Shewhart Charts. A control chart, computes the lower and upper control limits as a threshold to monitor any process measures; like CTQ. As the threshold is breached, the reaction plan has to be triggered. As the name suggests, it is a chart that is based on the principles of statistics, and hence there are no false alarms. Instilling the discipline of creating control charts and monitoring as per Control Plan is part of the rigor of a Lean Six Sigma Green Belt.

Benefits Computation & Closure

The last deliverable of the Lean Six Sigma project is Benefits Computation and Closure. But before that, the project is monitored for enough time (2 weeks to 2 months) to ensure that benefits are sustained. When the Lean Six Sigma Team is satisfied with the results, then the improved process is formally handed-over to the process owner.
Financial and non-financial benefits are computed based on actual results, and a formal sign-off from the finance manager and sponsor is obtained. This will be the project closure.
The Lean Six Sigma team celebrates its success; distributes rewards for active team members; and finally the Six Sigma Green Belt Certification Ceremony is undertaken.

Improve Phase of Lean Six Sigma Project – A Beginner’s Guide

Improve phase is the fourth phase of Lean Six Sigma projects. Following are the deliverable of this phase:

  • Identify Solutions to overcome the impact of root causes
  • Refine Solutions (FMEA, Poka-Yoke)
  • Pilot Solutions
  • Statistically validate results

Identify Solutions to overcome the impact of root causes

For each of the root causes identified in the Analyze phase, the Lean Six Sigma Team uses an apt structured or unstructured brainstorming method to generate various alternatives to overcome the problem. These techniques may include Channeling, Anti-solutions, Analogy, Wishful thinking, Random word stimulus methods, etc.

SCAMPER is another popular method which can be used by the Six Sigma Green Belt to systematically improve the current process using any of the following methods: Simplify or Substitute, Combine, Adapt, Modify, Put to different use, Eliminate & Reduce.

If there are too many options that the team has identified, then a variety of solution screening methods can be used to select the best solution for implementation. These screening methods include NGT (Nominal Group Technique), N/3 Voting, Criteria Based Matrix (CBT), etc.

Proposed solutions can be a new process, technology change, policy changes, alterations of inputs, measurement system refinement, customer, employee or vendor education, etc. In such cases, either revised process map, future state value stream mapping,  etc., may need to be proceeded.

The solution that the team has selected should directly impact the CTQ of the project. Six Sigma Green Belt should validate this.

Refining the Solutions (FMEA, Poka-Yoke)

Before implementing solutions, the Six Sigma Green Belt needs to ensure that the proposed solutions are complete and well refined. This will ensure that there are no delays, rework during implementation, and the full impact on CTQ is derived. In order to do this, a tool called Failure Modes Effect Analysis (FMEA) is used. The main purpose of this tool is to assess all the risks involved with a solution, and how to mitigate them by refining the solution before implementation. Risk Priority Number (RPN) derived from FMEA helps in prioritizing the risks and acting on them in a systematic manner.

Mistake-proofing (Poka-Yoke, in Japanese) is a method used to ensure that the proposed solution doesn’t create additional defects or errors. This can be used in conjunction with FMEA.

Pilot Solutions

Now the solution is ready for pilot. The purpose of the pilot is to assess its impact in a control group setting. Based on the qualitative and quantitative results of the pilot, necessary alternations can be incorporated to the final solution. Six Sigma Green Belt should closely work with the process owners during pilot to understand ground realities and build ownership.

Statistically validate results

In Lean Six Sigma Projects, it is an important step to statistically validate the impact on CTQ (before implementation & after Implementation). Hypothesis tests like 2-t test, ANOVA, Chi-square tests, etc., are used to perform this statistical validation. These tests help to identify if the improvement is significant or marginal in nature. Six Sigma Green Belt should be able to select and perform appropriate tests using statistical softwares.

On successful completion of these deliverable and formal Improve tollgate review, the Lean Six Sigma project team is ready to move to the Control phase.   Next >>>

Measure Phase of Lean Six Sigma Project – A Beginner’s Guide

Measure Phase of Lean Six Sigma Project is the second phase. Following are the deliverable of this phase:

  • Identify all possible causes (Cause & Effect Diagram)
  • Validate Measurement System, Data Collection & Sampling
  • Establish Process Capability

Identify all possible Causes (Cause & Effect)

In the measure phase of a Lean Six Sigma Project, the team brainstorms to identify all possible causes or reasons for the occurrence of the problem. Thus, there is a direct linkage between a project charter and this deliverable. Fish-bone diagram is a structured brainstorming method used to carry out this activity. Fish-bone diagram is also called as Ishikawa or Cause & Effect diagram. After completing this brainstorming, the team applies the 5-why technique to further explore the underlying causes for all the reasons identified in the fish-bone diagram. At the end of these two activities, the team has an exhaustive list of possible causes for the problem. Usually there are around 50~100 possible causes for the problem. It is the responsibility of Six Sigma Green Belt to facilitate these activities.

As a next step, using their process knowledge and experience, the team has to agree on few causes; which potentially cause the problem. There are several methods to do this, but the most popular method is the use of Cause & Effect Matrix (C-E Matrix). Potential Causes are suspects that are causing the problem. However, before acting on them, the team needs to gather data or facts to validate them.

Validate Measurement System, Data Collection & Sampling

Data Collection plays a very important role in all Six Sigma projects. But before collecting data, the team has to assess if the measurement system (measuring instrument, appraiser & environment in which measurement happens) is accurate and precise. Hence the team has to perform Measurement System Analysis (MSA) – aka Gage R&R. Once the team ascertains that the measurement is good, then a data collection plan is prepared. Data Collection Plan (DCP) includes the measures whose data needs to be collected, how much data to collect, data source, and who will collect the data, etc. While the entire team can participate in this activity, Six Sigma Green Belt has to take a lead role, as this will involve technical concepts of Gage R&R covered in the training program.

Unlike conventional data collection; in Lean Six Sigma projects, data is collected on both the CTQ and the potential causes identified in a Cause & Effect Matrix. Due to the quantum of data involved in most businesses, it isn’t practically viable to collect data of the entire population. Hence the team has to resort to statistical sampling methods.

As a next step, data collection is executed. From time-to-time a Six Sigma project team needs to validate the data collected. Sometimes, the data collectors need to be trained and retrained. Once the data collection is complete, it is ready for a process capability assessment. Usually many projects get delayed because of poor data quality or delay in collecting sufficient data. When a Six Sigma Green Belt takes special care, this activity can get completed on time.

Establish Process Capability

Process Capability is the ability of the process to deliver as per customer requirement. There are various process capability indices, but in Lean Six Sigma projects, sigma capability is the most popular measure. This exercise gives an accurate report on the current process performance. As these indices are covered in the training program, Six Sigma Green Belt has to take a lead role in conducting this study. The output of Process Capability study can be used to validate the process objectives and anticipated benefits in the charter. If needed, the Lean Six Sigma project charter can be revisited.

On completion of the above deliverable, and a formal Measure Phase tollgate review, the team is ready to move into Analyze phase. Next>>>


Define Phase of Lean Six Sigma Project – A Beginner’s Guide

Define Phase is the first phase of Lean Six Sigma Project. Following are the deliverable of this phase:

  • Develop the Project Charter
  • Identify the Project CTQ
  • Create Process Maps

Develop the Project Charter

Project Charter is an important document that summarizes the purpose, current scenario & goal, measures of success (CTQ), project’s scope, quantitative & indicative project benefits, and team members. This is the most important document, as it creates a term of reference for this entire Lean Six Sigma project. In order to prepare the project charter, several meetings and preparatory steps may be needed. In some cases, gathering the Voice of Customer (VOC) may be required to even understand the problem.

Project Scoping determines exactly how the project will contribute to overall business, whether the efforts will be diverted to maximum impact area, team composition, financial resources required, etc. In Six Sigma, a tool called ‘In-Frame Out-Frame’ is used to decide on the scope.

Six Sigma Green Belt should closely work with the Project Sponsor to complete the Project Charter.

Identify the Project CTQ

CTQ refers to Critical to Quality metric. This is a measure of success for the project. Usually, there is only one CTQ for DMAIC projects. It can either be a measure of efficiency or effectiveness. However, it is a key performance indicator for Voice of Customer or Voice of Business. Further, it should be measurable. Usually, its indicative or accurate current performance is reported in the project charter.

The above two deliverable run parallel, and they are of significant importance because they mark the formal kick-off of the project, team member induction, Lean Six Sigma training (if not included earlier).

Create Process Maps

In order to understand the end-to-end process; a detailed process document is created by the team. However, in case such documentation already exists, then it becomes easy for the project team members to revisit it.

Process maps can be either high level end-to-end process documentation such as SIPOC (Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Outputs & Customers), deployment process-charts which use Swim-lane technique or step-by-step process flow-chart.  In some cases, just mapping the process itself can result in meeting the Lean Six Sigma project objectives!

Six Sigma Green Belt can involve all her team members in this activity. Two best ways of mapping a process are to interview all the parties involved in the process or to conduct a work-out session with all parties. Latter requires good facilitation skills.

Once the process maps have been created, the team can use them to identify the bottlenecks, challenges, issues, inputs & outputs, delays, etc. Essentially, it can be used to decide which part of the process is important, and needs to be introspected.
On completion of the above deliverable, a formal define tollgate review is conducted. Then the project moves to Measure Phase. Next >>>

Lean Six Sigma Project – A Beginner’s Guide

Lean Six Sigma Project – A beginner’s guide is a series that explains how to run Lean Six Sigma projects in detail. The biggest benefit of combining Lean and Six Sigma is to deliver more value to customers and business. In order for a Six Sigma Green Belt to be successful with a project, they must know what’s to be done, and how to accomplish them! This guide is a step-by-step procedure to execute the 5 phases of a Lean Six Sigma project.

Lean Six Sigma improvement projects follow 5 phase DMAIC approach. A six sigma project is not an academic exercise, but its primary objective is to impact customers, business, and employees positively. Thus stakeholder buy-in and sponsorship are very important factors for its success. Every project should have at least one project sponsor (One sponsor is just fine, two is OK, but greater than that is undesirable). The project sponsor is usually the process owner or a senior management executive who is accountable for the overall project and its success. They take the lead in identifying the project & its objectives, and in team formation.

The team composition should be cross-functional. The sponsor also has to decide whether this Six Sigma project should be led by a Black Belt or Green Belt. Once identified, the respective Six Sigma Belt plays the lead role in the project. It is their responsibility to complete the project on time, and deliver desired results. Now, for the remaining part of this beginner’s guide, let’s assume that it is a Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Project.
The duration of a typical project should be between 3 to 4 months. The overall project plan for all Six Sigma improvement projects are mapped to Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. There are defined deliverables for each of these phases which have to be accomplished before progressing further. At the end of each phase, a formal tollgate is used to stage a gate review by the sponsors. Various Six Sigma concepts and tools can be applied to progress and accomplish desired phase-wise outcomes.

In order to make sure the project meets the timeline, and set-out objectives; the Green belt and team members are to meet regularly. In addition to this, Six Sigma Green Belts are mentored by Black Belts or Master Black Belts.

In a nutshell, following are the broad outlines for each of the DMAIC phases of Lean Six Sigma Project:

  • Define – Identify the project objective and define the problem to be solved
  • Measure – Collect necessary data regarding the problem and establish current performance
  • Analyze – Use the data collected to analyze and screen factors which are the root causes for a problem
  • Improve – Identify suitable solutions to overcome the root causes
  • Control – Implement the solutions and monitor its results

Next, as a part of this beginner’s guide, let’s understand how to accomplish the deliverable of the Define phase here. Next >>>

Canopus Six Sigma BB

Canopus Six Sigma BB


Our world-class Six Sigma Black Belt online course is based on best in class  Universal Body of Knowledge. Backed by experts in Lean Six Sigma, we bring the content of impeccable quality at your doorsteps.

We are Accredited Training Organization of International Association for Six Sigma Certification (IASSC) & The Six Sigma Council.


Six Sigma Black Belt Course Details :

  • 18 chapters of IASSC & ASQ Lean Six Sigma Black Belt body of knowledge
  • Total learning time of 150 hours – an equivalent of 19 days of classroom training
  • Interactive audio-visual medium of virtual delivery
  • Access anywhere and anytime – No travel required!
  • Ample hands-on activities based on live case study with solution keys
  • Exclusively designed for IT, ITES, manufacturing/process industry & services professionals
  • Loaded with industry examples
  • Interactive self-assessment quiz for every chapter
  • Crisp downloadable takeaways for each chapter
  • Elaborate Minitab/software procedure included.
  • Excel templates for all important lean six sigma tools with step-by-step procedure

 Course Features :

  • CBMG online training courses are developed based on the micro-learning concept. The duration of lecture videos is around 5 ~ 10 minutes/each.
  • Lectures are usually in asynchronous video format and securely hosted in our LMS.
  • All online courses are designed to take into consideration the learning experience and the knowledge acquisition of the participant in remote mode. Hence lectures have been segmented and grouped appropriately. For every video lecture, necessary tools, templates, case files, solution keys have been uploaded. Participants can download them on their local drive and practice.
  • After every lesson/chapter, a self-assessment quiz is included for the participant to validate his/her knowledge.
  • The delivery of the training content is by experienced IASSC Accredited Training Associate Instructors.

Black Belt Certification – Way Forward

After taking our course, if you fulfill our Certification criteria below, you will receive Canopus Lean Six Sigma Black Belt Certification that is widely accepted in Industry and we are an Accredited Training Organization of IASSC.

At any time in future, you can additionally enhance your credibility as a Certified Lean Six Sigma  Professional by appearing for certification evaluations of IASSC ( or ASQ (

IASSC™ Accreditation does not constitute its’ approval or recognition of our own lean six sigma certification program. The only method to earn an IASSC certification is to successfully sit for and pass an official IASSC certification™ exam. We do upon request administer or provide access to IASSC Certification exams for an additional cost of $395 towards exam fees payable to IASSC.


  • Green Belt Certification
  • Industry or Domain exposure: The participant should have sufficient exposure to his/her domain or industry, It is advisable to have a minimum of 8 years of industry work experience
  • Pass Pre-Test for admission to Black Belt Course. As Black Belt is an advanced program, without active and hands-on Green Belt BoK, it would be highly difficult to cope with Black Belt BoK

Canopus Black Belt Certification Criteria

  • Completion of BB courseware
  • Advanced Six Sigma online assessment\Complete 1 BB Project and get sign-off from the internal sponsor (Or) Submit Artefacts as a justification and defense of application knowledge. (Artefacts refers to application of any 1 or 2 BB BoK Tools to real life or 1 simulated scenario such as situation based cases provided by CBMG.)


  • The default access duration to the course for the participant will be specified at the time of registration is 120 days.
  • However, course validity is for 1 year from date of registration. Hence if required, candidates can request to extend the access during the 1 year period from the date of registration.


120 days access with 1-year validity to Online Six Sigma Black Belt course + Canopus Certification is Rs.24,999 + 18% GST

 Contact Us                        Buy Online  


Six Sigma Black Belt Course Content

For the convenience of the student, 18 chapters covering the universal body of knowledge have been logically organized in Lean Six Sigma DMAIC structure as follows:

CBMG LEAN SIX SIGMA BLACK BELT BoK  (List below excludes GB BoK which is mandatory for BB)

  1. Black Belt leadership      
    1. Expectations from a Black Belt role in market
    2. Leadership Qualities
    3. Organizational Roadblocks & Change Management Techniques
    4. Mentoring Skills
  2. Basic Six Sigma Metrics    
    1. CTQ Tree, Big Y, CTX
    2. DPU, DPMO, FTY, RTY, Cycle Time, Takt time
    3. Sigma scores computation using different tools
    4. Target setting techniques & Role of Benchmarking
  3. Business Process Management System
    1. BPMS and its elements
    2. Benefits of practicing BPMS (Process centricity and silos)
    3. BPMS Application scenarios
    4. BSC Vs Six Sigma
  4. MSA
    1. Performing Variable GRR using ANOVA/X-bar R method
    2. Precision, P/T, P/TV, Cont %, No. of Distinct Categories
    3. Crossed & Nested Designs
    4. Procedure to conduct Continuous MSA
    5. Performing Discrete GRR using agreement methods for binary and ordinal data
    6. Agreement & Disagreement Scores for part, operator, standard
    7. Kappa Scores Computation for ordinal data and criteria for acceptance of gage
  5. Statistical Techniques
    1. Probability Curve, Cumulative Probability, Inverse Cumulative Probability (Example and procedure), Shape, Scale and Location parameters
    2. Types of Distributions ( Normal, Weibull, Exponential, Binomial, Poisson) & their interpretation and application
    3. Identifying distributions from data
    4. Central Limit Theorem – Origin, Standard Error, Relevance to Sampling
    5. Example & Application of Central Limit Theorem
  6. Sampling Distributions
    1. Degrees of Freedom
    2. t-distribution – Origin, relevance, pre-requisites, t-statistic computation
    3. Chi-square distribution – Origin, relevance, pre-requisites, Chi-square statistic computation, Approximation to discrete data
    4. F-distribution – Origin, relevance, pre-requisites, F-Statistic and areas of applications
    5. Point & Interval estimates – Confidence and Predictive estimates for Sampling Distributions
    6. Application of Confidence Estimates in decision making
  7. Sampling of Estimates
    1. Continuous and Discrete Sample Size Computation for sampling of estimates
    2. Impact of Margin of Error, standard deviation, confidence levels, proportion defective and population on sample size
    3. Sample Size correction for finite population
    4. Scenarios to optimize Sample Size such as destructive tests, time constraints
  8. Advanced Graphical Methods
    1. Dot Plot
    2. Box Plot
    3. Interval Plot
    4. Stem-and-Leaf Plot
    5. Time Series & Run Chart
    6. Scatter Plot
    7. Marginal Plot
    8. Line Plots
    9. Contour Plot
    10. 3D scatter Plot
    11. 3D Surface Plot
    12. Matrix Plot
    13. Multi Vary Chart
  9. Inferential Statistics
    1. Advanced Introduction to Hypothesis Tests
    2. Significance and implications of 1 tail and 2 tail
    3. Types of Risks – Alpha and Beta Risks
    4. Significance & computation of test statistic, critical statistic,  p-value
  10. Sample Size for Hypothesis Tests
    1. Sample Size computation for hypothesis tests
    2. Power Curve
    3. Scenarios to optimize Sample Size, Alpha, Beta, Delta such as destructive tests
  11. Hypothesis Tests    
    1. 1Z, 1t, 2t, Paired t Test – Pre-requisites, Components & interpretations
    2. One and Two Sample Proportion
    3. Chi-square Distribution
    4. Ch-square Test for Significance & Good of Fit  – Components & interpretations
  12. ANOVA & GLM  
    1. ANOVA – Pre-requisites, Components & interpretations
    2. Between and Within Variation, SS, MS, F statistic
    3. 2-way ANOVA – Pre-requisites, Interpretation of results
    4. Balanced, unbalanced and Mixed factors models
    5. GLM – Introduction, Pre-requisites, Components & Interpretations
  13. Correlation & Regression
    1. Linear Correlation – Theory and computation of r value
    2. Nonlinear Correlation – Spearson’s Rho application and relevance
    3. Partial Correlation – Computing the impact of two independent variables
    4. Regression – Multi-linear  Components & interpretations
    5. Confidence and Prediction Bands, Residual Analysis, Building Prediction Models
    6. Regression – Logistic(Logit) & Prediction – Components & interpretations with example
  14. Dealing with Non-normal data
    1. Identifying Non-normal data
    2. Box Cox & Johnson Transformation
  15. Process Capability     
    1. Process Capability for Normal data
    2. Within Process Capability, Subgrouping of data
    3. Decision Tree for Type of Process Capability Study
    4. Process Capability of Non-normal data – Weibull, Binomial, Poisson Process Capability and interpretation of results
  16. Non-Parametric Tests
    1. Mann-Whitney
    2. Kruskal-Wallis
    3. Mood’s Median
    4. Sample Sign
    5. Sample Wilcoxon
  17. Experimental Design
    1. DOE terms, (independent and dependent variables, factors, and levels, response, treatment, error, etc.)
    2. Design principles (power and sample size, balance, repetition, replication, order, efficiency, randomization, blocking, interaction, confounding, resolution, etc.)
    3. Planning Experiments (Plan, organize and evaluate experiments by determining the objective, selecting factors, responses and measurement methods, choosing the appropriate design,
    4. One-factor experiments (Design and conduct completely randomized, randomized block and Latin square designs and evaluate their results)
    5. Two-level fractional factorial experiments (Design, analyze and interpret these types of experiments and describe how confounding affects their use)
    6. Full factorial experiments (Design, conduct and analyze full factorial experiments)
  18. Advanced Control Charts
    1. X-S chart
    2. CumSum Chart
    3. EWMA Chart